The focal point of downtown Fayetteville. The Market House was built in 1832 on the site of the old State House, which had been where North Carolina delegates had ratified the U.S. Constitution but later burned during the Great Fire of 1831. One of only 50 National Landmarks in North Carolina and the only one in Cumberland County.

Historically household goods were sold beneath, while the second floor was utilized as the town hall. Architecturally unique in North Carolina, the Market House is one of the few structures in America to use this town hall-market scheme found in England.

Occasionally enslaved people were sold at the Market Square and the vast majority of these sales were as a result of indebtedness or estate liquidation. During the Civil War, a skirmish took place around the Market House involving Confederate Hampton's and Union General Sherman's troops.